Explain any five factors responsible for the formation of soil.


Five factors responsible for the formation of soil are the parent rock, the topography, the climate, the vegetation cover and time.

(i) Parent rock – the original rock from which soil is formed is known as the parent rock for example the black soil is derived from the lava rock.

(ii) Topography- Topographical variations, such as mountains, plateaus and plains affect the thickness of a soil cover.

(iii) Climate – Climatic factors, like temperature and rainfall, affect the soil formation. In the areas of high rainfall and extreme temperature, rocks are easily weathered.

(iv) Vegetation cover – At times, plants grow in the cracks existing in a rock. With time, roots of these plants start penetrating in the cracks and make them wider. As a result, cracks disintegrate into smaller pieces and help in the soil formation.

(v) Time – Time gives maturity to the soil. Although, soil is a renewable resource, yet it takes thousands of years to develop a very thin layer of soil on the earth’s surface.