Classify, and explain, the categories of soil on the basis of ‘texture of the soil.
On the basis of soil texture, soil is classified into three categories- sandy soil, clayey soil and loamy soil.
(1) Sandy soils – Sandy soils have soil particles that are bigger in size; the large spaces between them are filled with air. They are, therefore, said to be well aerated. Such soils cannot retain water as water can drain out quickly through the spaces between the sand particles. Sandy soil needs more frequent irrigation for successful crop growth.
(2) Clayey soils – Clayey soils have a higher proportion of fine and smooth soil particles. There is very little space between the soil particles. Such soils cannot retain air. However, clayey soils can retain more water than sandy soils. This high-water holding capacity can cause problems, like water-logging, in the fields.
(3) Loamy soil – Loamy soil is a mixture of sand, silt and clay particles. It can hold both air and water. Loamy soil has humus also. It is considered to be the best soil for growing most of the crops.